Disulfide HMGB1 (100 µg) [HM-121]
HMGB1 is a nuclear protein that is released passively by necrotic cells, retained by apoptotic cells, and secreted actively by inflammatory cells (Dumitriu et al. HMGB1: guiding immunity from within. Trends Immunol 2005, 26: 381-7). HMGB1 is essential for life: Hmgb1 knockout mice die shortly after birth.
The two different activities of HMGB1 as a chemoattractanct of motile cells and as inducer of cytokines have been attributed to different biochemical forms. Fully reduced HMGB1 (the form with chemoattractanct activity) is completely reduced; disulfide HMGB1 contains a disulfide bond between C23 and C45 (complete notation: HMGB1C23-C45C106h - Antoine J. et al (2014).Mol Med).
Disulfide HMGB1 can induce cytokine and chemokine production in monocytes and other inflammatory cells (Venereau et al, 2012).
Structurally, Disulfide HMGB1 has a disulfide bridge between cysteine residues 23 and 45 and a reduced cysteine residue 106. Disulfide HMGB1 is tested for the ability to stimulate cytokine production in human macrophages.
The Disulfide HMGB1 we provide is the natural protein, with no tags or additional amino acids.
Disulfide HMGB1 is produced in E. coli and has the sequence:
MGKGDPKKPR GKMSSYAFFV QTCREEHKKK HPDASVNFSE FSKKCSERWK TMSAKEKGKF EDMAKADKAR YEREMKTYIP PKGETKKKFK DPNAPKRPPS AFFLFCSEYR PKIKGEHPGL SIGDVAKKLG EMWNNTAADD KQPYEKKAAK LKEKYEKDIA AYRAKGKPDA AKKGVVKAEK SKKKKEEEDD EEDEEDEEEE EEEEDEDEEE DDDDE
Molecular Mass: Disulfide HMGB1 consists of 215 amino acid residues and has a calculated molecular mass of approximately 24.8 kDa.
Structure: HMGB1 consists of two fairly rigid, L-shaped DNA-binding domains, each referred to as a ‘HMG box’, and an unstructured tail that ends with 30 consecutive negatively charged amino acids
Species specificity: the sequence and structure of HMGB1 have been strictly conserved during evolution, and HMGB1 proteins from all mammals are virtually identical (Sessa L, Bianchi ME. The evolution of High Mobility Group Box (HMGB) chromatin proteins in multicellular animals. Gene 2007, 387:133-40).
Purity: It contains no nucleic acids, nor IL-1beta.
Endotoxin Level: The purified protein is free from LPS (Cambrex Limulus Amoebocyte Assay QCL-1000, <0.4 ng LPS per mg protein).
Buffer: Disulfide HMGB1 is lyophilized from 50 mM HEPES buffer, pH 7.9 and 500 mM NaCl.
Storage: 2-8°C. The protein once resuspended can be stored frozen (-20°C).
This product is intended for research only, and cannot be used on humans.
Publications where this product was used:
Venereau et al (2012)Mutually exclusive redox forms of HMGB1 promote cell recruitment or proinflammatory cytokine release JEM, 2012
Yang et al (2012) Redox modification of cysteine residues regulates the cytokine activity of HMGB1. Mol Med 18:250-9
Complete Name: High Mobility Group 1
Other Names: Amphoterin-1, High mobility group protein 1,HMG-1, SBP-1, high mobility group protein B1, high-mobility group box 1, Amphoterin, HMG1, HMGB1, SBP-1, recombinant HMGB1